Winifred Frick, Ph.D. | White-nose Syndrome
winifred frick, bat research,
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White-nose Syndrome


We work on understanding transmission dynamics and long-term impacts of a novel fungal pathogen, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in hibernating bats.  White-Nose Syndrome has caused massive declines in bats species in North America, since its discovery in 2006. Our work involves determining the prevalence of infection and infectious loads on bats throughout North America and determining the seasonality of transmission.  Understanding the transmission dynamics of this emerging infectious disease will help lead to insights about the long-term population impacts and inform effective management actions.  I collaborate with Dr. Marm Kilpatrick in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at UC Santa Cruz on this project.  Our work is funded by the National Science Foundation’s Ecology of Infectious Diseases program, Bat Conservation International, and the US Fish and Wildlife Service.


Relevant publications:


Maslo, B, M. Valent, J.F. Gumbs, and W.F. Frick.  2015.  Annual survival of little brown bats improves over time after initial impacts from white-nose syndrome.  Ecological Applications. 2(7): 1832-1840


 Janicki, AF., W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, K.L. Parise, J.T. Foster, and G.F. McCracken.  2015.  Efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula.  PLoS One 10(7): e013339


 Frick, W.F., S.J. Puechmaille,J.R. Hoyt, B.A. Nickel, K.E. Langwig,J.T. Foster,K.E. Barlow, T. Bartonička,D. Feller, A.J. Haarsma, C. Herzog, I. Horáček, J. van der Kooij, B. Mulkens, B. Petrov, R. Reynolds, L. Rodrigues, C.W. Stihler, G.G. Turner, A.M. Kilpatrick.  2015.  Disease alters macroecological patterns of North American bats.  Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 741-749. 


Langwig, K.E, J.R. Hoyt, K.L. Parise, J. Kath, D. Kirk, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick.  2015.  Invasion dynamics of white-nose syndrome fungus, Midwestern United States, 2012-2014 Emerging Infectious Diseases 21(6): 1023-1026.


Hoyt, J.R., T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, M.H. Hee, W.F. Frick, and A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015.  Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome. PLoS One 10(4):e0121329


Langwig, K.E., J. Voyles, M.Q. Wilber, W.F. Frick, K. Murray, B.M Bolker, J.P. Collins, J.R. Hoyt, D.S. Blehert, C.W. Willis, T.L. Cheng, M Fisher, D. Lindner, H. McCallum, R. Puschendor, E.B. Rosenblum, M. Toothman, C.J. Briggs, A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015  Context dependent conservation responses to wildlife disease. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(4) 195-202


Mascuch, S.J., W.J. Moree, C.C. Hsu, G.G. Turner, T.L. Cheng, D.S. Blehert, A.M. Kilpatrick, W.F. Frick, M.J. Meehan, L. Gerwick, and P.C. Dorrestein.  2015.  Direct detection of fungal siderophores on bats with white-nose syndrome via fluorescence microscopy guided ambient ionization mass spectrometry. PLoS One 10(3): e0119668. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0119668 


Langwig, K.E., Frick W.F., Reynolds R., Parise K.L., Drees K.P., Hoyt J.R., Cheng T.L., Kunz, T.H, Foster J.T., and Kilpatrick, A.M. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome. 2015.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 20142335.


 Voyles, J. A.M. Kilpatrick, J. Collins, M. Fisher, W.F. Frick, H. McCallum, C.K.R. Willis, D.S. Blehert, K.A. Murray, R. Puschendorf, E.B. Rosenblum, B.M. Bolker, T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, D.L. Lindner, M. Toothman, M.Q. Wilber and C. Briggs.  2014  Moving beyond too little, too late: Managing emerging infectious diseases in wild populations requires international policy and partnerships.  EcoHealth DOI: 10.1007/s10393-014-0980-5


 Hoyt JR, KE Langwig, J  Okoniewski, W.F. Frick, WB Stone, and AM Kilpatrick.  2014.   Long-term persistence of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, in the absence of bats. EcoHealth.  DOI: 10.1007/s10393-014-0981-4


 Langwig, K.E., W.F. Frick, J.T. Bried, A.C. Hicks, T.H. Kunz, and A.M. Kilpatrick.  2012. Extinction and persistence in bat populations suffering from a multi-host fungal disease, white-nose syndrome. Ecology Letters 15:1050-1057.


 Puechmaille, S.J., W.F. Frick, T.H. Kunz, P.A. Racey, C.C. Voigt, G. Wibbelt, E.C. Teeling.  2011. White Nose Syndrome: Is this emerging disease a threat to European bats?  TREE 11: 570-576.


 Wilder, A.P., W.F. Frick, K.E. Langwig, and T.H. Kunz.  2011.  Risk factors associated with mortality from white-nose syndrome among hibernating colonies. Biology Letters 7: 950-953.


 Frick, W.F., J.F. Pollock, A. Hicks, K. Langwig, D.S. Reynolds, G. Turner, C. Butchowski, and T.H. Kunz.  2010. An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species. Science.  329: 679-682. 


 Frick, W.F., D.S. Reynolds, T.H. Kunz.  2010.  Influence of climate and reproductive timing on demography of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). J. of Animal Ecology.  79: 128-136.