Winifred Frick, Ph.D. | Publications
winifred frick, bat research,
page-template-default,page,page-id-5,ajax_leftright,page_not_loaded,,qode-theme-ver-7.7,wpb-js-composer js-comp-ver-4.7.4,vc_responsive



 64. Bernard, R.F., J.D. Reichard, J.T.H. Coleman, J.C. Blackwood, M.L. Verant, J.L. Segers, J.M. Lorch, J.P. White, M.S. Moore, A.L. Russell, R.A. Katz, D.L. Lindner, R.S. Toomey, G.G. Turner, W.F. Frick, M. J. Vonhoff, C.K.R. Willis, E.H. Campbell Grant. In Press.  Identifying research needs to inform white-nose syndrome management decisions.  Conservation Science and Practice

 63. Frick, W.F., A. Russell, and E. Gillam.  In press.  Contributions of women and creating culture of inclusivity at the North American Society of Bat Research over the Past 50 Years. Book Chapter in 50 Years of Bat Research. Springer, New York.

 62. McCracken, G., Y. Lee, E. Gillam, W.F. Frick, J. Krauel.  In press.  Bats flying at high altitudes. Book Chapter in 50 Years of Bat Research. Springer, New York.

 61. Hoyt, J.R., K.E. Langwig, K. Sun, K.L. Parise, A. Li, Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Worledge, H. Miller, J.P. White, H.M. Kaarakka, J.A. Redell, T. Görföl, S.A. Boldogh, D. Fukui, M. Sakuyama, S. Yachimori, A. Sato, D. Munkhnast, A. Jargalsaikhan, N. Batbayar, Y . Yovel, E. Amichai, I. Natradze, W. F. Frick, J. T. Foster, J. Feng, A. M. Kilpatrick.  2020.  Environmental reservoir dynamics predict global infection patterns and population impacts for the fungal disease white-nose syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117: 7255-7262


 60. Steel, Z. L., B. Campos, W.F, Frick, R. Burnett, H.D. Safford.  2019.  The effects of wildfire severity and pyrodiversity on bat occupancy and diversity in fire-suppressed forests.  Scientific Reports 9: 16300.

 59. Stepanian, P.M., C.E. Wainwright, W.F. Frick, and J.F. Kelly.  2019.  Weather surveillance radar as an objective tool for monitoring bat phenology and biogeography.  Journal of Engineering 2019(20): 7062-7064.  Doi: 10.1049/joe.2019.0595

58. Frick, W.F., T. Kingston, J. Flanders.  2019.  A review of the major threats and challenges to global bat conservation.  Annals of the New York Academy of Science: Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology Series. DOI: 10.1111/nyas.140451

 57. Ange-Stark, M. T.L. Cheng, J.R. Hoyt, K.E. Langwig, K.L. Parise, W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, M.D. MacManes, and J.T. Foster.  2019.  White-nose syndrome restructures bat skin microbiomes.  BioRxiv preprint. DOI:

 56. Hoyt, J.R. K.E. Langwign, J.P. White, H.M. Kaarakka, J.A. Redell, K.L. Parise, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, and A.M. Kilpatrick.  2019.  Field trial of a probiotic bacteria to protect bats from white-nose syndrome.  Scientific Reports 9: 1-9.

 55. Cheng, T.L.C., A. Gerson, M. Moore, J. Reichard, J. DeSimone, C. Willis, W.F. Frick, and A.M. Kilpatrick.  2019.  Higher fat stores contribute to persistence of little brown bat colonies with white-nose syndrome.  Journal of Animal Ecology 88: 591-600.


 54. Hoyt, J.R. K.E. Langwig, J.P. White, H.M. Kaarakka, J. Redell, A. Kurta, J. DePue, W.H. Scullon, K.L. Parise, J.T. Foster, W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick.  2018.  Cryptic connections illuminate pathogen transmission within community networks.  Nature 563: 710-713.

53. Frick, W.F., P.A. Heady III, A.D. Earl, M.C. Arteaga, P. Cortés-Calva, R.A. Medellín (2018)  Seasonal ecology of a migratory nectar-feeding bat at the edge of its range.  Journal of Mammalogy. DOI:10.1093/jmammal/gyy088

52. Arteaga, M.C., P.A. Luna-Ortíz, P.A. Heady III, R. Medellín, W.F. Frick (2018) Genetic diversity distribution among seasonal colonies of a nectar-feeding bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) in the Baja California Peninsula.  Mammalian Biology 92: 78-85.

51. Chilson, P.B., W.F. Frick, J.F. Kelly, and F. Leichti. 2018. Aeroecology: An integrative view of the atmosphere.  Pages 3-13 in Aeroecology, Springer ISBN 978-3-319-68574-8

50.W.F. Frick, J.J. Krauel, K.R. Broadfoot, J.F. Kelly, and P.B. Chilson (2018)  The lofty lives of aerial consumers: linking population ecology and aeroecology.  Pages 379-400 in Aeroecology, Springer ISBN 978-3-319-68574-8


49. Voigt, C., W.F. Frick, M.W. Holderied, R. Holland, G. Kerth, M.A.R. Mello, R. Plowright, S. Swartz, and Y. Yovel(2017). Principles and patterns of bat movements: From aerodynamics to ecology. The Quarterly Review of Biology 92:3, 267-287

48.Shipley, R.J., J.F. Kelly, W.F.Frick (2017).Towards integrating citizen science and radar data for migrant bird conservation. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation. DOI: 10.1002/rse2.62

47.Moore, M. S., K.A. Field, M.J. Behr, G.G. Turner, M.E. Furze, D. Stern, P.R. Allegra, S.A. Bouboulis, C.D. Musante, M.E. Vodzak, M.E. Biron, M.B. Meierhofer, W.F.Frick, J.T. Foster, D. Howell, J.A. Kath, A. Kurta, G. Nordquist, J.S. Johnson, T.M. Lilley, B.W. Barrett, D.A. Reeder (2017). Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 7, 1753–14.

46. Frick, W.F., E.F. Baerwald, R.M.R. Barclay, S.C. Loeb, R.A. Medellin, J.F. Pollock, J.A. Szymanski, A.L. Russell, T.J. Weller, and L.P. McGuire.  2017 Fatalities at wind turbines may threaten population viability of a migratory bat.  Biological Conservation 209: 172-177

45.Frick, W.F.,T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, J.R. Hoyt, A.F. Janicki, K.L. Parise, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick.  2017.  Pathogen dynamics during invasion and establishment of white-nose syndrome explain mechanisms of host persistence. Ecology 98(3): 624-631

44.Aliperti, J.R., D.A Kelt, P.A. Heady III, and W.F. Frick.  2017.  Using behavioral and stable isotope data to quantify rare dietary plasticity in a temperate bat. Journal of Mammalogy DOI:10.1093/jmammal/gyw196

43. Langwig, K.E., J.R. Hoyt, K.L. Parise, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick.  2017.  Resistance in persisting bat populations after white-nose syndrome invasion.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 372: 20160044


42.Avena, C.V., L.W. Parfrey, J.W. Leff, H.M. Archer, W.F. Frick, K.E. Langwig, A.M. Kilpatrick, K.E. Powers, J.T. Foster, and V.J. McKenzie.  2016.  Deconstructing the bat skin microbiome: influences of the host and the environment.  Frontiers in Microbiology PDF

41. Langwig, K.E., W.F. Frick, J.R. Hoyt, K.L. Parise, K.P. Drees, T.H. Kunz, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick.  2016.  Drivers of variation in species impacts for a multi-host fungal disease of bats.  Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B.PDF

40. Cheng, T.L., H. Mayberry, L.P. McGuire, J.R. Hoyt, K.E. Langwig, H. Nguyen, K.L. Parise, C.K.R. Willis, A.M. Kilpatrick, W.F. Frick.  2016.  Efficacy of a probiotic bacterium to treat bats affected by the disease white-nose syndrome. Journal of Applied Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12757 PDF

39. McGuire, L.P., J.M. Turner, L. Warnecke, G. McGregor, T.K. Bollinger, V. Misra, J.T. Foster, W.F. Frick, A. M. Kilpatrick, C.K.R. Willis.  2016.  White-nose syndrome disease severity and a comparison of diagnostic methods.  EcoHealth DOI: 10.1007/s10393-016-1107-y  PDF

38. Hoyt, J.R., K.E. Langwig, K. Sun, G. Lu, K. Parise, T. Jiang, W.F. Frick, J. Foster, J. Feng, and A. M. Kilpatrick.  2016.  Host persistence or extinction from emerging infectious diseases: insights from endemic and invading regions.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283 (1826): 20152861 PDF

37. Frick, W.F., S.J. Puechmaille, and C.K.R. Willis.  2016.  White-nose syndrome in bats.  Chapter 9 in Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. C.C. Voigt and T. Kingston (editors). Springer, New York. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-25220-9_9 PDF

36. Hoyt, J.R., K. Sun, K.L. Parise, G. Lu, K.E. Langwig, T. Jiang, S. Yang, W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, J.T. Foster, and J. Feng.  2016.  Widespread occurrence of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, in northeast China.  Emerging Infectious Diseases 22 (1)  PDF


35. Maslo, B, M. Valent, J.F. Gumbs, and W.F. Frick.  2015.  Annual survival of little brown bats improves over time after initial impacts from white-nose syndrome.  Ecological Applications. 2(7): 1832-1840 PDF

34. Janicki, AF., W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, K.L. Parise, J.T. Foster, and G.F. McCracken.  2015.  Efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula.  PLoS One 10(7): e013339 PDF

33. Langwig, K.E, J.R. Hoyt, K.L. Parise, J. Kath, D. Kirk, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick.  2015.  Invasion dynamics of white-nose syndrome fungus, Midwestern United States, 2012-2014 Emerging Infectious Diseases 21(6): 1023-1026. PDF

Press: Nature

32. Hoyt, J.R., T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, M.H. Hee, W.F. Frick, and A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015.  Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome. PLoS One 10(4):e0121329 PDF

Press: Quirks and Quarks RadioCanadian Broadcasting CorporationDiscovery News,Yahoo News, NatureEarthweek: A Diary of the Planet,

31. Langwig, K.E., J. Voyles, M.Q. Wilber, W.F. Frick, K. Murray, B.M Bolker, J.P. Collins, J.R. Hoyt, D.S. Blehert, C.W. Willis, T.L. Cheng, M Fisher, D. Lindner, H. McCallum, R. Puschendor, E.B. Rosenblum, M. Toothman, C.J. Briggs, A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015  Context dependent conservation responses to wildlife disease. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment PDF

Press: Nature

30. Mascuch, S.J., W.J. Moree, C.C. Hsu, G.G. Turner, T.L. Cheng, D.S. Blehert, A.M. Kilpatrick, W.F. Frick, M.J. Meehan, L. Gerwick, and P.C. Dorrestein.  2015.  Direct detection of fungal siderophores on bats with white-nose syndrome via fluorescence microscopy guided ambient ionization mass spectrometry. PLoS One 10(3): e0119668. doi:10.1371/journal. pone.0119668 PDF

29.  Frick, W.F., S.J. Puechmaille,J.R. Hoyt, B.A. Nickel, K.E. Langwig,J.T.Foster,K.E. Barlow, T. Bartonička,D. Feller, A.J. Haarsma, C. Herzog, I. Horáček, J. van der Kooij, B. Mulkens, B. Petrov, R. Reynolds, L. Rodrigues, C.W. Stihler, G.G. Turner, A.M. Kilpatrick.  2015.  Disease alters macroecological patterns of North American bats.  Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 741-749.  PDF GEB Cover Image

Press: NSF Discoveries, ScienceNews

28. Langwig, K.E., Frick W.F., Reynolds R., Parise K.L., Drees K.P., Hoyt J.R., Cheng T.L., Kunz, T.H, Foster J.T., and Kilpatrick, A.M. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome. 2015.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B 282: 20142335.  PDF

Press: ScienceNewsNature


27. Voyles, J. A.M. Kilpatrick, J. Collins, M. Fisher, W.F. Frick, H. McCallum, C.K.R. Willis, D.S. Blehert, K.A. Murray, R. Puschendorf, E.B. Rosenblum, B.M. Bolker, T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, D.L. Lindner, M. Toothman, M.Q. Wilber and C. Briggs.  2014  Moving beyond too little, too late: Managing emerging infectious diseases in wild populations requires international policy and partnerships.  EcoHealth DOI: 10.1007/s10393-014-0980-5  PDF

26. Hoyt JR, KE Langwig, J  Okoniewski, W.F. Frick, WB Stone, and AM Kilpatrick.  2014.  Long-term persistence of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, in the absence of bats. EcoHealth.  DOI: 10.1007/s10393-014-0981-4 PDF

25. Meynard, C.N., M. Soto-Gamboa, P.A. Heady, W.F. Frick. 2014. Bats of the Chilean temperate rainforest: patterns of landscape use in a mosaic of native forests, eucalyptus plantations and grasslands within a South American biodiversity hotspot. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 1949-1963 PDF

24.  Frick, W.F., J.R. Shipley, P.A. Heady III, and K.M. Kay. 2014 Seasonal reliance on nectar by an insectivorous bat revealed by stable isotopes. Oecologia 174:55-65 PDFOecologia Cover Jan 2014


23. Kelly, J.F., E.S. Bridge, W.F. Frick, and P.B. Chilson. 2013. Ecological energetics of an abundant aerial insectivore, the purple martin. PLoS ONE 8:e76616. PDF

22.  Frick, W.F., P.B. Chilson, E.S. Bridge, N.W. Fuller and T.H. Kunz. 2013.  Aeroecology.  Pages 149-168 in Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation.  R.A. Adams and S.C. Pedersen, editors.  Springer.

21.  Frick, W.F.  2013.  Acoustic monitoring of bats, considerations of options for long-term monitoring.  Therya 4(1): 69-78. PDF

20. Buchalski, M.R. J.B. Fontaine, P.A. Heady III, J.P. Hayes, and W.F. Frick.  2013. Bat response to differing fire severity in mixed-conifer forest California, USA.  PLoS One 8(3): e57884. PDF

19.  Frick, W.F., R.D. Price, P.A. Heady III, and K.M. Kay. 2013. Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively per visit than specialized nectar bat.  The American Naturalist 181:137-144. PDF

Press: BioNews:American Museum of Natural History


18.  Frick, W.F.  2012.  Monitoring bats in caves and mines: the impact of white-nose syndrome on hibernating bats.  Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Importance of Bats as Bioindicators. Granollers, Spain

17. Chilson, P.B., W.F. Frick, P. Stepanian, J.R. Shipley, T.H. Kunz, and J.F. Kelly.  2012. Estimating animal densities in the aerosphere using weather radar: To Z or not to Z?Ecosphere 3(8): Article 72. PDF

16.  Frick, W.F., P.M. Stepanian, J.F. Kelly, K.W. Howard, C.M. Kuster, T.H. Kunz, and P.B. Chilson.  2012.  Climate and weather impact timing of emergence in bats.  PLoS One7:e42737 PDF

15. Langwig, K.E., W.F. Frick, J.T. Bried, A.C. Hicks, T.H. Kunz, and A.M. Kilpatrick.  2012.  Sociality, density-dependence and microclimates determine the persistence of populations suffering from a novel fungal disease, white-nose syndrome.  Ecology Letters 15:1050-1057 PDF

14. Chilson, P.B.,E.B. Bridge, W.F. Frick, J.W. Chapman, and J.F. Kelly.  2012.  Radar aeroecology: exploring the movements of aerial fauna through radio-wave remote sensing.Biology Letters 8:698-701 PDF

13. Kelly, J.F. J.R. Shipley, P.B. Chilson, K. Howard, W.F. Frick, and T.H. Kunz.  2012.  Quantifying animal phenology in the aerosphere at a continental scale using NEXRAD weather radars. Ecosphere 3: Article 16. PDF

12. Chilson, P.B., W.F. Frick, K.W. Howard, J.F. Kelly, T.A. Kelly, R.H. Diehl, R.P. Larkin, J.K.Westbrook and T.H. Kunz.  2012.  Partly cloudy with a chance of migration: Weather, Radars and Aeroecology. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93:1-19. PDF

Selected Press from AAAS Special Symposium on Aeroecology (from > 30 media pieces): BBC, ScienceNews, ScienceDaily, USAToday


11. Puechmaille, S.J., W.F. Frick, T.H. Kunz, P.A. Racey, C.C. Voigt, G. Wibbelt, E.C. Teeling.  2011.  White Nose Syndrome: Is this emerging disease a threat to European bats?  TREE Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11: 570-576. PDF

10.  Wilder, A.P., W.F. Frick, K.E. Langwig, and T.H. Kunz.  2011.  Risk factors associated with mortality from white-nose syndrome among hibernating colonies. Biology Letters. 7: 950-953. PDF

9. Kunz, T.H., J.T. Foster, W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, G.F. McCracken, M.S. Moore, J.D. Reichard, D.M. Reeder, and A.H. Robbins.  2011.  White-Nose Syndrome: An Overview of Ongoing and Future Research Needs.  Pages 189-204 in Proceedings: Protecting Threatened Bats at Coal Mines: A Technical Interactive Forum.  US Department of the Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL.


8.  Frick, W.F. J.F. Pollock, A.C. Hicks, K.E. Langwig, D.S. Reynolds, G.G. Turner, C.M. Butchkoski, and T.H. Kunz.  2010.  An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species.  Science 329:  679-682 PDF

Selected Press (from > 15 media pieces): Science Podcast; NPR’s Science Friday; BBCWired, DiscoveryNews, National Geographic, DOT Earth NY Times

7.  Frick, W.F., D.S. Reynolds, T.H. Kunz.  2010.  Influence of climate and reproductive timing on demography of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus).  Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 128-136. PDF


6.  Frick, W.F., P.A. Heady III, J.P. Hayes. 2009. Facultative nectar-feeding in an insectivorous bat (Antrozous pallidus).  Journal of Mammalogy 90:1157-1164. PDF

5.  Frick, W.F., J.P. Hayes, and P.A. Heady III.  2009.  Nestedness of a desert bat assemblage: species composition patterns in insular and terrestrial landscapes.Oecologia 158: 687-697.  PDF


4.  Frick, W.F., J.P. Hayes, and P.A. Heady III.  2008.  Patterns of island occupancy in bats: Influences of area and isolation on insular incidence of volant mammals. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 622-632. PDF

3.  Frick, W.F., J.P. Hayes, and P.A. Heady III.  2008.  Island biogeography of bats in Baja California, Mexico: Patterns of bat species richness in a desert archipelago.  Journal of Biogeography  35: 353-364. PDF


2.  Frick, W.F., W.E Rainey, and E.D. Pierson.  2007.  Potential effects of environmental contamination on Yuma myotis demography and population growth.  Ecological Applications 17(4): 1213-1222. PDF


1. Kauffman, M.J., W.F. Frick, and J. Linthicum.  2003.  Estimation of habitat-specific demography and population growth for peregrine falcons in California.  Ecological Applications 13(6): 1802-1816. PDF