Winifred Frick, Ph.D. | Publications
winifred frick, bat research,
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79. Friedenberg, N.A. and W.F. Frick. Assessing fatality minimization targets for hoary bats amid continued wind energy development. Biological Conservation.

78. Shapiro, J.T., L. Víquez-R, S. Leopardi, A. Vicente-Santos, I.H. Mendenhall, W.F. Frick, R.C. Kading, R.A. Medellín, P. Racey, and T. Kingston. Setting the terms for zoonotic diseases: effective communication for research, conservation, and public policy. Viruses. 13, 1356.

77. McGuire, L.P., E.M. Johnson, W.F. Frick, and J.G. Boyles. Temperature alone is insufficient to understand hibernation energetics. 2021. Journal of Experimental Biology. 224 jeb239772

76. Cappelli, Mattia P., R.V. Blakey, D. Taylor, J. Flanders, T. Badeen, S. Butts, W.F. Frick, and H. Rebelo. 2021. Limited refugia and high velocity range-shifts predicted for bat communities in drought-risk areas of the Northern Hemisphere. Global Ecology and Conservation Biology. 28 e01608

75. Cheng, T.L. J.D. Reichard, J.T.H. Coleman, T.J. Weller, W.E. Thogmartin, B.E. Reichert, A. Bennett, H.G. Broders, J. Campbell, K. Etchison, D.J. Feller, R. Geboy, T. Hemberger, C. Herzog, A.C. Hicks, S. Houghton, J. Humber, J.A. Kath, A. King, S.C. Loeb, A. Masse, K.M. Morris, H. Niederriter, G.E. Nordquist, R.W. Perry, R. Reynolds, D.B. Sasse, M.R. Scafini, R.C. Stark, C.W. Stihler, S.C. Thomas, G.C. Turner, S. Webb, B.Westrich, W.F. Frick. 2021. The scope and severity of white-nose syndrome on hibernating bats in North America. Conservation Biology: 1-12

74. Frick, W.F. 2021. Book Review: Phyllostomid Bats: A Unique Mammalian Radiation by Theodore H. Fleming, Liliana M. Dávalos, Marco A. R. Mello (Eds) University of Chicago Press. Biological Conservation. 256, 09061

73. Sutherland, W.J., H. Downey, W.F. Frick, P. Tinsely-Marshall, and T. McPherson. 2021. Planning practical evidence-based decision making within time constraints: the Strategic Evidence Assessment Framework. Journal for Nature Conservation. Online Early.

72. Reichert, B., M. Bayless, T.L. Cheng, J. Coleman, C. Francis. W.F. Frick, B. Gotthold, K.M. Irvine, C. Lausen, Cori, H. Li, S.C. Loeb, J.D. Reichard, T.J. Rodhouse, J.L. Segers, J.L. Siemers, W.E. Thogmartin, T. Weller. NABat: A top-down, bottom-up solution to collaborative continental-scale monitoring. 2021. Ambio.10.1007/s13280-020-01411-y

71. Simmons, N.B., J. Flanders, E.M. Bakwo Fils, G. Parker, J.D. Suter, S. Bamba, M. Douno, M. Kobele Keita, A.E. Morales, and W.F. Frick. A new dichromatic species of Myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from the Nimba Mountains, Guinea. 2021. American Museum Novitates. 3963.


70. Kurta, A., W.F. Frick, M.B. Fenton, P. Campbell, G.F. McCracken, R.M. Timm, and H.H. Genoways. 2020. Obituary Thomas Henry Kunz. Journal of Mammalogy: 101(6):1752–1780 DOI:10.1093/jmammal/gyaa100

69. Frick, W.F., A. Russell, and E. Gillam. 2020. Contributions of women and creating a culture of inclusivity at the North American Society of Bat Research over the Past 50 Years. Chapter in 50 Years of Bat Research. Springer, New York.

68. McCracken, G., Y. Lee, E. Gillam, W.F. Frick, J. Krauel. 2020. Bats flying at high altitudes. Chapter in 50 Years of Bat Research. Springer, New York.

67. Rocha, R. S.A. Aziz, C.E. Brook, W.D. Carvalho, R. Cooper-Bohannon, W.F. Frick, J. C-C Huang, T. Kingston, A. López-Baucells, B. Maas, F. Matthews, R.A. Medellin, K.J. Olival, A.J. Peel, R.K. Plowright, O. Razgour, H. Rebelo, L. Rodrigues, S.J. Rossiter, D. Rusos, T.M. Straka, E.C. Teeling, T. Treuer, C.C. Voigt, and P.W. Webala. 2020. Bat conservation and zoonotic disease risk: a research agenda to prevent misguided persecution in the aftermath of COVID-19. Animal Conservation 1–5.

66. Olival, K.J., P.M. Cryan, B.R. Amman, R.S. Baric, D.S. Blehert, C.E. Brook, C.H. Calisher, K.T. Castle, J.T.H. Coleman, P. Daszak, J.H. Epstein, H.Field, W.F. Frick, A.T. Gilbert, D.T.S. Hayman, H.S. Ip, W.B. Karesh, C.K. Johnson, R.C. Kading, T. Kingston, J.M. Lorch, I.H. Mendenhall, A.J. Peel, K.L. Phelps, R.K. Plowright, E.M. Reeder, J.D. Reichard, J.M. Sleeman, D.G. Streiker, J.S. Towner, and Lin-Fa Wang. 2020. Possibility for reverse zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to free-ranging wildlife: a case study of bats. PLOS Pathogens 16(9): e1008758

65. Frick, W.F. 2020. A Bat’s End: The Christmas Island Pipistrelle and Extinction in Australia by John Woinarski. The Quarterly Review of Biology 95: 164-165.

64. Bernard, R.F., J.D. Reichard, J.T.H. Coleman, J.C. Blackwood, M.L. Verant, J.L. Segers, J.M. Lorch, J.P. White, M.S. Moore, A.L. Russell, R.A. Katz, D.L. Lindner, R.S. Toomey, G.G. Turner, W.F. Frick, M. J. Vonhoff, C.K.R. Willis, E.H. Campbell Grant. 2020. Identifying research needs to inform white-nose syndrome management decisions. Conservation Science and Practice DOI: 10.1111/csp2.220

63. Hoyt, J.R., K.E. Langwig, K. Sun, K.L. Parise, A. Li, Y. Wang, X. Huang, L. Worledge, H. Miller, J.P. White, H.M. Kaarakka, J.A. Redell, T. Görföl, S.A. Boldogh, D. Fukui, M. Sakuyama, S. Yachimori, A. Sato, D. Munkhnast, A. Jargalsaikhan, N. Batbayar, Y . Yovel, E. Amichai, I. Natradze, W. F. Frick, J. T. Foster, J. Feng, A. M. Kilpatrick. 2020. Environmental reservoir dynamics predict global infection patterns and population impacts for the fungal disease white-nose syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 117: 7255-7262


62. Steel, Z. L., B. Campos, W.F, Frick, R. Burnett, H.D. Safford. 2019. The effects of wildfire severity and pyrodiversity on bat occupancy and diversity in fire-suppressed forests. Scientific Reports 9: 16300.

61. Stepanian, P.M., C.E. Wainwright, W.F. Frick, and J.F. Kelly. 2019. Weather surveillance radar as an objective tool for monitoring bat phenology and biogeography. Journal of Engineering 2019(20): 7062-7064. Doi: 10.1049/joe.2019.0595

60. Frick, W.F., T. Kingston, J. Flanders. 2019. A review of the major threats and challenges to global bat conservation. Annals of the New York Academy of Science: Year in Ecology and Conservation Biology Series. DOI: 10.1111/nyas.140451

59. Ange-Stark, M. T.L. Cheng, J.R. Hoyt, K.E. Langwig, K.L. Parise, W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, M.D. MacManes, and J.T. Foster. 2019. White-nose syndrome restructures bat skin microbiomes. BioRxiv preprint. DOI:

58. Hoyt, J.R. K.E. Langwig, J.P. White, H.M. Kaarakka, J.A. Redell, K.L. Parise, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, and A.M. Kilpatrick. 2019. Field trial of a probiotic bacteria to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. Scientific Reports 9: 1-9.

57. Cheng, T.L.C., A. Gerson, M. Moore, J. Reichard, J. DeSimone, C. Willis, W.F. Frick, and A.M. Kilpatrick. 2019. Higher fat stores contribute to persistence of little brown bat colonies with white-nose syndrome. Journal of Animal Ecology 88: 591-600.


56. Hoyt, J.R. K.E. Langwig, J.P. White, H.M. Kaarakka, J. Redell, A. Kurta, J. DePue, W.H. Scullon, K.L. Parise, J.T. Foster, W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick. 2018. Cryptic connections illuminate pathogen transmission within community networks. Nature 563: 710-713.

55. Frick, W.F., P.A. Heady III, A.D. Earl, M.C. Arteaga, P. Cortés-Calva, R.A. Medellín. 2018. Seasonal ecology of a migratory nectar-feeding bat at the edge of its range. Journal of Mammalogy 99: 1072-1081

54. Arteaga, M.C., P.A. Luna-Ortíz, P.A. Heady III, R. Medellín, W.F. Frick. 2018. Genetic diversity distribution among seasonal colonies of a nectar-feeding bat (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae) in the Baja California Peninsula. Mammalian Biology 92: 78-85.

53. Shipley, J.R., J.F. Kelly, and W.F. Frick. 2018. Integrating citizen science and radar data for migrant bird conservation. Remote Sensing in Ecology and Conservation 4: 127-136


52. Chilson, P.B., W.F. Frick, J.F. Kelly, and F. Leichti. 2017. Aeroecology: An integrative view of the atmosphere. Pages 3-13 in Aeroecology, Springer ISBN 978-3-319-68574-8

51. W.F. Frick, J.J. Krauel, K.R. Broadfoot, J.F. Kelly, and P.B. Chilson. 2017. The lofty lives of aerial consumers: linking population ecology and aeroecology. Pages 379-400 in Aeroecology, Springer ISBN 978-3-319-68574-8

50. Voigt, C., W.F. Frick, M.W. Holderied, R. Holland, G. Kerth, M.A.R. Mello, R. Plowright, S. Swartz, and Y. Yovel. 2017. Principles and patterns of bat movements: From aerodynamics to ecology. The Quarterly Review of Biology 92:3, 267-287

49. Moore, M. S., K.A. Field, M.J. Behr, G.G. Turner, M.E. Furze, D. Stern, P.R. Allegra, S.A. Bouboulis, C.D. Musante, M.E. Vodzak, M.E. Biron, M.B. Meierhofer, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, D. Howell, J.A. Kath, A. Kurta, G. Nordquist, J.S. Johnson, T.M. Lilley, B.W. Barrett, D.A. Reeder (2017). Energy conserving thermoregulatory patterns and lower disease severity in a bat resistant to the impacts of white-nose syndrome. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 7, 1753–14.

48. Frick, W.F., E.F. Baerwald, R.M.R. Barclay, S.C. Loeb, R.A. Medellin, J.F. Pollock, J.A. Szymanski, A.L. Russell, T.J. Weller, and L.P. McGuire. 2017 Fatalities at wind turbines may threaten population viability of a migratory bat. Biological Conservation 209: 172-177

47. Frick, W.F., T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, J.R. Hoyt, A.F. Janicki, K.L. Parise, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick. 2017. Pathogen dynamics during invasion and establishment of white-nose syndrome explain mechanisms of host persistence. Ecology 98(3): 624-631

46. Aliperti, J.R., D.A Kelt, P.A. Heady III, and W.F. Frick. 2017. Using behavioral and stable isotope data to quantify rare dietary plasticity in a temperate bat. Journal of Mammalogy 98: 340-349.
45. Langwig, K.E., J.R. Hoyt, K.L. Parise, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick. 2017. Resistance in persisting bat populations after white-nose syndrome invasion. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 372: 20160044


44. Langwig, K.E., W.F. Frick, J.R. Hoyt, K.L. Parise, K.P. Drees, T.H. Kunz, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick. 2016. Drivers of variation in species impacts for a multi-host fungal disease of bats. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 371: 20150456

43. Avena, C.V., L.W. Parfrey, J.W. Leff, H.M. Archer, W.F. Frick, K.E. Langwig, A.M. Kilpatrick, K.E. Powers, J.T. Foster, and V.J. McKenzie. 2016. Deconstructing the bat skin microbiome: influences of the host and the environment. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:1753

42. Cheng, T.L., H. Mayberry, L.P. McGuire, J.R. Hoyt, K.E. Langwig, H. Nguyen, K.L. Parise, C.K.R. Willis, A.M. Kilpatrick, W.F. Frick. 2016. Efficacy of a probiotic bacterium to treat bats affected by the disease white-nose syndrome. Journal of Applied Ecology doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12757

41. McGuire, L.P., J.M. Turner, L. Warnecke, G. McGregor, T.K. Bollinger, V. Misra, J.T. Foster, W.F. Frick, A. M. Kilpatrick, C.K.R. Willis. 2016. White-nose syndrome disease severity and a comparison of diagnostic methods. EcoHealth DOI: 10.1007/s10393-016-1107-y

40. Hoyt, J.R., K.E. Langwig, K. Sun, G. Lu, K. Parise, T. Jiang, W.F. Frick, J. Foster, J. Feng, and A. M. Kilpatrick. 2016. Host persistence or extinction from emerging infectious diseases: insights from white-nose syndrome in endemic and invading regions. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 283 (1826): 20152861

39. Frick, W.F., S.J. Puechmaille, and C.K.R. Willis. 2016. White-nose syndrome in bats. Chapter 9 in Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. C.C. Voigt and T. Kingston (editors). Springer, New York. DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-25220-9_9

38. Hoyt, J.R., K. Sun, K.L. Parise, G. Lu, K.E. Langwig, T. Jiang, S. Yang, W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, J.T. Foster, and J. Feng. 2016. Widespread bat white-nose syndrome fungus, northeastern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases 22 (1): 140-142


37. Maslo, B, M. Valent, J.F. Gumbs, and W.F. Frick. 2015. Conservation implications of ameliorating survival of little brown bats with white-nose syndrome. Ecological Applications 25(7): 1832-1840.

36. Frick, W.F., S.J. Puechmaille, J.R. Hoyt, B.A. Nickel, K.E. Langwig, J.T. Foster, I. Horáček, T. Bartonička, K.E. Barlow, A.J. Haarsma, J. van der Kooij, L. Rodrigues, B. Mulkens, B. Petrov, C. Herzog, R. Reynolds, C.W. Stihler, G.G. Turner, D. Feller, A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015. Disease alters macroecological patterns of North American bats. Global Ecology and Biogeography 24: 747-749

35. Langwig, K.E., W.F. Frick, R. Reynolds, K.L. Parise, K.P. Drees, J.R. Hoyt, T.L. Cheng, T.H. Kunz, J.T. Foster, A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282 (1799) 20142335

34. Janicki, A.F., W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, K.L. Parise, J.T. Foster, and G.F. McCracken. 2015. Efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula. PLoS One 10(7): e013339

33. Langwig, K.E., J.R. Hoyt, K.L. Parise, J. Kath, D. Kirk, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015. Invasion Dynamics of White-Nose Syndrome Fungus, Midwestern United States, 2012–2014. Emerging Infectious Disease 21(6) 1023-26

32. Langwig, K.E., J. Voyles, M.Q. Wilber, W.F. Frick, K.A. Murray, B.M. Bolker, J.P. Collins, T.L. Cheng, M.C. Fisher, J.R. Hoyt, D.L. Lindner, H.I. McCallum, R. Puschendorf, E.B. Rosenblum, M. Toothman, C.K.R. Willis, C.J. Briggs, A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015. Context dependent conservation responses to emerging wildlife diseases. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 13(4) 195-202

31. Hoyt J. R., T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, M. M. Hee, W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome. PLoS One 10(4): e0121329

30. Mascuch, S.J., W.J. Moree, C.C. Hsu, G.G. Turner, T.L. Cheng, D.S. Blehert, A.M. Kilpatrick, W.F. Frick, M.J. Meehan, L. Gerwick, and P.C. Dorrestein. 2015. Direct detection of fungal siderophores on bats with white-nose syndrome via fluorescence microscopy guided ambient ionization mass spectrometry. PLoS One 10(3): e0119668.


29. Voyles, J. A.M. Kilpatrick, J. Collins, M. Fisher, W.F. Frick, H. McCallum, C.K.R. Willis, D.S. Blehert, K.A. Murray, R. Puschendorf, E.B. Rosenblum, B.M. Bolker, T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, D.L. Lindner, M. Toothman, M.Q. Wilber and C. Briggs. 2014. Moving beyond too little, too late: Managing emerging infectious diseases in wild populations requires international policy and partnerships. EcoHealth DOI: 10.1007/s10393-014-0980-5

28. Hoyt J.R., K.E. Langwig, J. Okoniewski, W.F. Frick, W.B. Stone, and A.M. Kilpatrick. 2014. Long-term persistence of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, in the absence of bats. EcoHealth: DOI: 10.1007/s10393-014-0981-4

27. Meynard, C.N., M. Soto-Gamboa, P.A. Heady, W.F. Frick. 2014. Bats of the Chilean temperate rainforest: patterns of landscape use in a mosaic of native forests, eucalyptus plantations and grasslands within a South American biodiversity hotspot. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 1949-1963.

26. Frick, W.F., J.R. Shipley, P.A. Heady III, and K.M. Kay. 2014. Seasonal reliance on nectar by an insectivorous bat revealed by stable isotopes. Oecologia 174:55-65.


25. Kelly, J.F., E.S. Bridge, W.F. Frick, and P.B. Chilson. 2013. Ecological energetics of an abundant aerial insectivore, the purple martin. PLoS One 8:e76616.

24. Frick, W.F. 2013. Acoustic monitoring of bats, considerations of options for long-term monitoring. Therya 4(1): 69-78.

23. Frick, W.F., P.B. Chilson, E.S. Bridge, N.W. Fuller and T.H. Kunz. 2013. Aeroecology. Pages 149-168 in Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation. R.A. Adams and S.C. Pedersen, editors. Springer, New York.

22. Buchalski, M., J. Fontaine, P.A. Heady III, J.P. Hayes, and W.F. Frick. 2013. Bat response to differing fire severity in mixed-conifer forest California, USA. PLoS One 8(3): e57884.

21. Frick, W.F., R.D. Price, P.A. Heady III, and K.M. Kay. 2013. Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively than specialized nectar bat. The American Naturalist 181: 137-144.


20. Frick, W.F. 2012. Monitoring bats in caves and mines: the impact of white-nose syndrome on hibernating bats. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Importance of Bats as Bioindicators. Granollers, Spain

19. Chilson, P.B., W.F. Frick, P. Stepanian, J.R. Shipley, T.H. Kunz, and J.F. Kelly. 2012. Estimating animal densities in the aerosphere using weather radar: To Z or not to Z? Ecosphere 3(8): Article 72.

18. Frick, W.F., P.M. Stepanian, J.F. Kelly, K.W. Howard, C.M. Kuster, T.H. Kunz, and P.B. Chilson. 2012. Influence of climate and weather on emergence behavior of bats. PLoS One 7(8) e42737.

17. Langwig, K.E., W.F. Frick, J.T. Bried, A.C. Hicks, T.H. Kunz, and A.M. Kilpatrick. 2012. Sociality, density-dependence and microclimates determine the persistence of populations suffering from a novel fungal disease, white-nose syndrome. Ecology Letters 15:1050-1057.

16. Chilson, P.B., E. Bridge, W.F. Frick, J.W. Chapman, and J.F. Kelly. 2012. Radar aeroecology: exploring the movements of aerial fauna through radio-wave remote sensing. Biology Letters 8:698-701.

15. Kelly, J.F. J.R. Shipley, P.B. Chilson, K. Howard, W.F. Frick, and T.H. Kunz. 2012. Quantifying animal phenology in the aerosphere at a continental scale using NEXRAD weather radars. Ecosphere 3(2): Article 16.

14. Chilson, P.B., W.F. Frick, K.W. Howard, J.F. Kelly, T.A. Kelly, R.H. Diehl, R.P. Larkin, J.K.Westbrook and T.H. Kunz. 2012. Partly cloudy with a chance of migration: Weather, Radars and Aeroecology. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 93:1-19.

13. Frick, W.F., P. M. Stepanian, J. F. Kelly, D. E. Scipion, S. M. Stough, C. M. Kuster, T. H. Kunz, K. W. Howard, and P. B. Chilson. 2012. Use of archived radar products for investigating influence of meteorological cues on animal behaviors in the aerosphere. Proceedings of the ERAD 2012: The 7th European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, Toulouse, France, June 25-29, 2012.


12. Puechmaille, S.J., W.F. Frick, T.H. Kunz, P.A. Racey, C.C. Voigt, G. Wibbelt, E.C. Teeling. 2011. White Nose Syndrome: Is this emerging disease a threat to European bats? TREE 11: 570-576.

11. Wilder, A.P., W.F. Frick, K.E. Langwig, and T.H. Kunz. 2011. Risk factors associated with mortality from white-nose syndrome among hibernating colonies. Biology Letters 7: 950-953.

10. Kunz, T.H., J.T. Foster, W.F. Frick, A. M. Kilpatrick, G.F. McCracken, M.S. Moore, J.D. Reichard, D.M. Reeder, and A.H. Robbins. 2011. White-Nose Syndrome: An Overview of Ongoing and Future Research Needs. Pages 189-204 in Proceedings: Protecting Threatened Bats at Coal Mines: A Technical Interactive Forum. US Department of Interior, Office of Surface Mining, Coal Research Center, Southern Illinois University Carbondale.


9. Frick, W.F., J.F. Pollock, A. Hicks, K.E. Langwig, D.S. Reynolds, G. Turner, C. Butchowski, and T.H. Kunz. 2010. An emerging disease causes regional population collapse of a common North American bat species. Science 329: 679-682.

8. Frick, W.F., D.S. Reynolds, T.H. Kunz. 2010. Influence of climate and reproductive timing on demography of little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus). Journal of Animal Ecology 79: 128-136.

7. Chilson, P.B. K.W. Howard, W.F. Frick, J.F. Kelly, and T.H. Kunz. 2010. Radar aeroecology: The need for cohesive radar studies of organisms in the aerosphere. Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Radar in Meteorology and Hydrology, Sibiu, Romania, September 6-10, 2010.


6. Frick, W.F., P.A. Heady III, J.P. Hayes. 2009. Facultative nectar-feeding in an insectivorous bat (Antrozous pallidus). Journal of Mammalogy 90(5): 1157-1164.

5. Frick, W.F., J.P. Hayes, and P.A. Heady III. 2009. Nestedness of a desert bat assemblage: species composition patterns in insular and terrestrial landscapes. Oecologia 158: 687-697.


4. Frick, W.F., J.P. Hayes, and P.A. Heady III. 2008. Patterns of island occupancy in bats: Influences of area and isolation on insular incidence of volant mammals. Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 622-632.

3. Frick, W.F., J.P. Hayes, and P.A. Heady III. 2008. Island biogeography of bats in Baja California, Mexico: Patterns of bat species richness in a desert archipelago. Journal of Biogeography 35: 353-364.


2. Frick, W.F., W.E Rainey, and E.D. Pierson. 2007. Potential effects of environmental contamination on Yuma myotis demography and population growth. Ecological Applications 17(4): 1213-1222.

1. Kauffman, M.J., W.F. Frick, and J. Linthicum. 2003. Estimation of habitat-specific demography and population growth for peregrine falcons in California. Ecological Applications 13(6): 1802-1816.